Border less Entry in Xamarin Forms


In Xamarin Forms Entry control allows a single line of text to be edited. This article demonstrates how to create a custom renderer for the Entry control, enabling developers to override the default native rendering with their own platform-specific customization.

Custom Renderer:

  1. This sample demonstrates a custom renderer for the Entry control, “Enabling developers to override the default native rendering” with their own platform-specific customization.
  2. Custom renderers provide a powerful approach for customizing the appearance and behavior of Xamarin Forms controls. They can be used for small styling changes or sophisticated platform-specific layout and behavior customization.


Step1: Create the Mobile App (Xamarin Forms) Project

Open VisualStudio 2017    File   New   Project   Choose Cross-Platform Template   Choose MobileApp (Xamarin.Forms )   Name it as BorderLessEntry   Click on OK   Choose .NetStanderd   Click OK


Step2: Creating CustomEntry.cs

Go to project BorderLessEntry   Right Click   Add Class CustomEntry.cs

File Name: CustomEntry.cs

A custom Entry can be created by subclassing the Entry control, as shown in the following code

The CustomEntry control is created in the .NET Standard library project and is simply an Entry control. Customization of the control will be carried out in the custom renderer, so no additional implementation is required in the CustomEntry control.


Step 3: Create a class in the Android directory and name it as CustomRenderer.cs

Go to BorderlessEntry.Android   Right Click   Add Class CustomRenderer.cs


File Name: CustomRenderer.cs

Brief Explanation of the above Code:

Here Added the ASSEMBLY attribute it means like Declarations

  • CustomEntry is the name of the placeholder class in your common (PCL or Shared) Forms library.
  • ExportRenderer is the name of the actual platform specific implementation class in your iOS/Android/WP


Essentially, telling Forms, “When you need to render CustomEntry on Platform X, use the class CustomRenderer

  1. Create a subclass of the EntryRenderer class that renders the native control.
  2. Override the OnElementChangedmethod that renders the native control and write logic to customize the control. This method is called when the corresponding Xamarin.Forms control is created.
  3. Added an ExportRendererattribute to the custom renderer class to specify that it will be used to render the Xamarin Forms control. This attribute is used to register the custom renderer with Xamarin Forms.


Step 4: Create UI for Border less Entry 

File Name: MainPage.xaml

I have taken example as Registration Form for better Understand

Here we have to declare the Local Reference namespace in MainPage.xaml


Output: Tadaa, here is the expected output

Pinch and Pan Image in Xamarin Forms

ZoomImage (PINCH and PAN) In Xamarin Forms

Step1: Create the Mobile App (Xamarin Forms) Project

Open VisualStudio 2017    File    New    Project    Choose Cross-Platform Template    Choose MobileApp (Xamarin.Forms )    Name it as ZoomImageApp    Click on OK    Chose .NetStanderd    Click OK

Step2: Creating DoubleExtension.cs

Go to PCF file In ZoomImageApp    Right Click    Add Class DoubleExtention.cs

File Name: DoubleExtensions.cs

Step 3: Creating Pinch & Pan Container

Create a class in the root directory and name it as PinchAndPanContainer.cs

File Name: PinchAndPanContainer.cs

Step 5: Copy any source image to Zoom it.

Go to ZoomimageApp.Android    Resources    Drawable    In my case I’ve taken slip.png

Step 6:  Creating UI for Pinch & Pan Container

File: MainPage.xaml

Output: Tadaaa, Run the program Ctrl+F5

XPath Selenium Selectors

XPath Selenium Selectors

We can find the location of any element on a web page using XML path expressions. The basic syntax for XPath is shown below:

Example = //input[@id=’user-message‘]

Absolute and Relative XPath

Generally, in some test automation engineer interviews, I asked the difference between absolute and relative XPath. Actually, it is the answer is very easy.

Absolute XPath

  • It is a direct way to locate an element.
  • It is very brittle.
  • Starts with single slash “/” that means starting to search from the root.

Example: /html/body/div[2]/div/div[2]/div[1]/div[2]/form/div/input

Relative XPath

  • Starts from the middle of the HTML DOM.
  • Starts with a double slash “//” that means it can start to search anywhere in the DOM structure.
  • Shorter than Absolute XPath.
  • Less fragile.

Example: //div[@class=’form-group’]//input[@id=’user-message’]

Example: //*[@class=’panel-body’]//li[contains(text(),’entered in input field’)]

Writing Smart XPaths for Complex and Dynamic Elements

1) Writing XPath with Tag & Attribute & Value Trio

Example: //input[@id, ‘user-message’]


2) Writing XPath with contains()

It is very handy XPath Selenium locator and sometimes it saves the life of a test automation engineer. When an attribute of an element is dynamic, then you can use contains() for the constant part of the web element but also you can use contains() in any condition when you need.

Example: //input[contains(@id, ‘er-messa’)]


3) Writing XPath with starts-with

This method checks the starting text of an attribute. It is very handy to use when the attribute value changes dynamically but also you can use this method for non-changing attribute values.

Example: //input[starts-with(@id, ‘user’)]

4) Writing XPath with Chained XPaths Declerations

We can chain multiple relative XPath declarations with “//” double slash to find an element location as shown below.

Example: //div[@class=’form-group’]//input[@id=’user-message’]

5) Writing XPath with “and Statement

In this method, we use two interrogation conditions such as A and B and return a result-set as shown below:

Example: //*[@id=’user-message’ and @class=’form-control’]

6) Writing XPath with text()

We can find an element with its exact text.

Example: .//label[text()=’Enter message’]


$emit, $broadcast, $on – Part2

$emit: It dispatches an event name upwards through the scope hierarchy and notify to the registered $rootScope.Scope listeners. The event life cycle starts at the scope on which $emit was called. The event traverses upwards toward the root scope and calls all registered listeners along the way. The event will stop propagating if one of the listeners cancels it.

$broadcast: It dispatches an event name downwards to all child scopes (and their children) and notify to the registered $rootScope.Scope listeners. The event life cycle starts at the scope on which $broadcast was called. All listeners for the event on this scope get notified. Afterwards, the event traverses downwards toward the child scopes and calls all registered listeners along the way. The event cannot be canceled.

$on: It listen on events of a given type. It can catch the event dispatched by $broadcast and $emit.

  • And now creating the script, here myController is the controller which is going to emit/broadcast an event with some arguments.
  • parentController1, parentController2 will listen to event which is dispatched from myController by $broadcast.
  • childController1, childController2 will listen to event which is dispatched from myController by $emit.



  • In this example we have used $scope context to $emit/$broadcast the events, and $on has listened all the events by using $scope.$on().
  • Now if we have used $rootscrope context to $emit/$broadcast, it will not work same as that works with $scope.
  • Because $rootscope is the parent scope and it doesn’t have any parent, when we emit using $rootscope.$emit(), only $rootscope.$on() can listen to that events. Whereas when we broadcast using $rootscope.$broadcast(), all the $rootscope.$on() and $scope.$on() can listen to that event.



Cancelling Events:

Canelling event is possible when event is emitted, but we cannont cancel the event when it is broadcasted.

  • If the event is dispatched by using $scope.$emit( ) then any of the $rootscope/$scope listeners can cacel it.
  • If the event is dispatched by using $rootscope.$emit() then any of the $rootscope listeners can cancel it.

$emit, $broadcast, $on – Part1

$emit, $broadcast, $on – Part1

How to use $rootScope:

As we know that $rootScope is the parent for $scope, to override the $rootScope we need to re-initialize the $rootScope variable with $scope

Let us see an example

In this example we have injected $rootScope in both parent and child controllers.

As $rootScope variables will be available throughout the application we can now access the $rootScope variable anywhere in the application by just injecting the $rootScope


  • Now if we remove the $rootScope from Parent and initialize it in child controller, it works same.


How to pass data from parent controller to child

To pass the data from Parent Controller to Child, we need to extract parent controller $scope variable using $parent.

Example: In this example we will use only $scope.

How to pass data from child controller to parent

To pass data from child to parent controllers using $scope we don’t have $child to take from child controller. But here I’ll show you one of the possible way to transfer data.

  • In child controller initialize the empName in an object as $scope.employee.empName.
  • In parent controller declare an empty object naming with same object as $scope.employee = {}


$emit, $broadcast, $on – Part2

Automation Test Life Cycle

Once you start automating test script you will get this work often. We talk about life cycle it mean end to end picture of that scenario, like we have a life cycle for development, for manual testing similarly we have in Automation as well. Today in this post we will discuss Automation test life cycle in short ATLC.

You all must be familiar with SDLC ( Software development life cycle ), STLC ( Software test life cycle ), so lets discuss ATLC ( Automation test life cycle ).

Please refer  below image is the ATLC (Automation test life cycle diagram)

Automation test life cycle has 6 section

1- Automation feasibility analysis

2- Test Plan/Test Design

3- Environment Setup/Test lab setup

4-Test Script development/ Automation test case development

5-Test script execution

6- Generate test result / Analyses of  result


Lets start  each of the phase of Automation test life cycle

1- Automation feasibility analysis

  • The main objective of this phase will be to check feasibility of automation. 
  • Which test case can be automated and how we can automate them.
  • Which module of your application can be tested and which can not be automated
  • Which tools we can use for our application (like Selenium, QTP, Sahi, OATS, Telrik etc) and which tools will be best of our application
  • Take following factors into consideration like Team size, Effort and cost involved for tools which we will use.

2- Test Plan/Test Design

  • In this phase you have to create a Test plan by considering below point into considerations.
  • Fetch  all the manual test case from test management tool that which TC has to automate.
  • Which framework to use and what will be advantage and disadvantage  of the framework which we will use.
  • Create a test suite for Automation test case in Test Management tool.
  • In test plan you can mention background, limitation, risk and dependency between application and tools.
  • Approval from client/ Stack holders.

3- Environment Setup/Test lab setup 

By name itself you can understand that we need to setup machine or remote machine where our test case will execute.

  • In this section you can mention how many machine you want.
  • What should be the configuration in terms of hardware and software

4- Test Script development/ Automation test case development

In this phase you have to start develop automation script and make sure all test script is running fine and should be stable enough.

  • Start creating test script based on your requirement
  • Create some common method or function that you can reuse throughout your script
  • Make your script easy, reusable,well structured and well documented so if third person check your script then he/she can understand your scripts easily.
  • Use better reporting so in case of failing you can trace your code
  • Finally review your script and your script should be ready before consumption.

5 – Test script execution
Now its time for execution of test scripts, in this phase you have to execute all your test script.
Some points to remember while execution

  • Your script should cover all the functional requirement as per test case.
  • Your script should be stable so it should run in multiple environment and multiple browsers (depends on your requirement)
  • You can do batch execution also if possible so it will save time and effort.
  • In case of failure your script should take screen shots.
  • If test case is failing due to functionality, you have to raise a bug/defect.

 6- Generate test result / Analyses of  result

This is the last phase of Automation test life cycle in which we will gather test result and will share with team/client/stack holders.

  • Analyze the output and calculate how much time it take to complete the testcase.
  • You should have good report generation like XSLT report, TestNG report, ReporterNG etc.

Selenium Interview Questions

What is Automation Testing?

Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test. Automation testing involves the use of a separate testing tool which lets you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.

What are the benefits of Automation Testing?

Benefits of Automation testing are:

  • Supports execution of repeated test cases
  • Aids in testing a large test matrix
  • Enables parallel execution
  • Encourages unattended execution
  • Improves accuracy thereby reducing human-generated errors
  • Saves time and money

Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?


  • is a free and open source
  • have a large user base and helping communities
  • have cross Browser compatibility (Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari etc.)
  • have great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux etc.)
  • supports multiple programming languages (Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Pearl etc.)
  • has fresh and regular repository developments
  • supports distributed testing

What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?

Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing suites. Selenium is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web-based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professionals.

Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, rather a package of several testing tools and for the same reason, it is referred to as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirements.

The suite package constitutes of the following sets of tools:

  • Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – Selenium IDE is a record and playback tool. It is distributed as a Firefox Plugin.
  • Selenium Remote Control (RC) – Selenium RC is a server that allows a user to create test scripts in the desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers.
  • Selenium WebDriver – WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate.
  • Selenium Grid – Selenium Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently.

What are the testing types that can be supported by Selenium?

Selenium supports the following types of testing:

  • Functional Testing
  • Regression Testing

What are the limitations of Selenium?

Following are the limitations of Selenium:

  • Selenium supports testing of only web-based applications
  • Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Captcha and Barcode readers cannot be tested using Selenium
  • Reports can only be generated using third-party tools like TestNG or JUnit.
  • As Selenium is a free tool, thus there is no ready vendor support through the user can find numerous helping communities.
  • The user is expected to possess prior programming language knowledge.

When should I use Selenium IDE?

Selenium IDE is the simplest and easiest of all the tools within the Selenium Package. Its record and playback feature make it exceptionally easy to learn with minimal acquaintances to any programming language. Selenium IDE is an ideal tool for a naïve user.

What are the different types of locators in Selenium?

The locator can be termed as an address that identifies a web element uniquely within the webpage. Thus, to identify web elements accurately and precisely we have different types of locators in Selenium:

  • ID
  • ClassName
  • Name
  • TagName
  • LinkText
  • PartialLinkText
  • Xpath
  • CSS Selector

What is the difference between assert and verify commands?

Assert: Assert command checks whether the given condition is true or false. Let’s say we assert whether the given element is present on the web page or not. If the condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution would stop and no further test would be executed.

Verify: Verify command also checks whether the given condition is true or false. Irrespective of the condition being true or false, the program execution doesn’t halt i.e. any failure during verification would not stop the execution and all the test steps would be executed.

What is an XPath?

XPath is used to locate a web element based on its XML path. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is used to store, organize and transport arbitrary data. It stores data in a key-value pair which is very much similar to HTML tags. Both being markup languages and since they fall under the same umbrella, XPath can be used to locate HTML elements.

The fundamental behind locating elements using XPath is the traversing between various elements across the entire page and thus enabling a user to find an element with the reference of another element.

What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?

Single Slash “/” – Single slash is used to create Xpath with absolute path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node.

Double Slash “//” – Double slash is used to create Xpath with relative path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document.

When should I use Selenium Grid?

Selenium Grid can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably.

How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?

The following syntax can be used to launch Browser:

What is a framework?


The framework is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanism, test data injections etc. to pillar automation testing.

What are the advantages of Automation framework?

The advantage of Test Automation framework

  • Reusability of code
  • Maximum coverage
  • Recovery scenario
  • Low-cost maintenance
  • Minimal manual intervention
  • Easy Reporting

Java Interview Questions:

  1. Difference between Overloading and over riding

Method over Loading:

  • Method Overloading is performed with in Class
  • In Case of method overloading, Parameter is deferent
  • Return type can be same or different in method overloading. But you must have to  change the parameter.


Method overriding:

  • Method overriding occurs in two Classes that have Is-A (inheritance) relationships.
  • In Case of method overriding, parameter must be same.
  • Return Type must be same



Importance of Finally?

Finally block that used to execute important code such as closing connection, stream etc


Difference between public, private, protect?


Xamarin.Forms CarouselView with image indicators

Download source code

Most of us when we are very familiar with Bootstrap carousel, we expect the same output in mobile CarouselView either. But the problem with Xamarin.Form CarouselView doesn’t provide us such CarouselView with Image Indicators. 

So this article will help the crazy professionals

Step1: Create a Mobile App (Xamarin.forms) project

Open Visual Studio 2017    File    New    Project    Choose Cross-Platform template    choose Mobile App (Xamarin.Forms)    Name it as CarouselViewApp    Click on OK    choose .Net Standard    Click OK


Step2: Install CarouselView NuGet Package

Right click on CarouselViewApp    Manage NuGet Packages    type CarouselView.FormsPlugin and Install the package


Step3: Create a Model for Images as ImageModel.cs

Before that add the images in CarouselViewApp.Android    Resource    drawable

File: ImageModel.cs


Step4: Create ViewModel for MainPage.xaml

Right click on CarouselViewApp    Add    NewItem    Visual C#    Add new class MainPageViewModel.cs

File: MainPageViewModel.cs


Step5:  Adding namespace in the MainPage.xaml


Step6: Assign BindingContext for MainPage.xaml.cs

File: MainPage.xaml.cs


Step7: Creating UI for MainPage.xaml

File: MainPage.xaml

  1. By using Image.GestureRecognizers, we are firing click events using MVVM Architecture
  2. Rotation property for ListView helps us to set or get the current rotation of the element. Here we are rotating ListView to 270 deg
  3. Here the indicators row in Grid is build using RelativeLayout.
  4. RelativeLayout is used here to turn the ListView in Horizontal Direction
    1. At first we move ListView into RelativeLayout, and maintaining the RelativeLayout HeightRequest.
    2. Now we need to fit the ListView in RelativeLayout bounds, this we can do it by using RelativeLayout Constraints.
    3. RelativeLayout.XConstraint, RelativeLayout.YContraint  are used to fix the x,y positions. And then RelativeLayout.WidthConstraint is to set the width for image, RelativeLayout.HeightContraint is to set the height for image.
    4. And the final step is to rotate the ContentView. This will first rotate the cell and the fit image into it.


output: Now run the application


Authentication and Authorization in ASP.NET Web API using Custom Filters

  • Web API is a platform for building RESTful applications on DotNet Framework. 
  • These API’s can be consumed from Console, Windows, Web, Mobile Applications.
  • As Web API is a part of core ASP.NET, it can be created on either MVC applications, or any other web applications.
  • Web API’s uses all the HTTP features like Request and Response headers, caching and so on…
  • Web API’s can return the data in various formats like
    • string format
    • Json format
    • XML format
    • BSON format

Step 1: Create a  ASP.NET Web API application

Open Visual Studio –> File –> New –> Project –> choose template Web –> click on ASP.NET Web Application  and provide name of the application–> choose Web API from the below check boxes –> Click OK

Step 2: Create a Model and inherit GenericIdentity from Security.Principal assembly

File: UserModel.cs


Step 3: Now add a new class for Creating custom filter as MyAuthorization and inherit AuthorizationFilterAttribute and add the following assemblies MyAuthorization class.

File: MyAuthorization.cs


Step 4: Here is your CustomAuthorization Filter MyAutorization


Step 5: Now create an API Controller and add your custom filter. Here I’m adding for only one method for testing you can add it for the entire class or add it globally.

File: Global.asax 

Add the below line in Application_Start( ), this registers our custom Filter for the entire application.

 File: EmployeeAPIController.cs


Step 6: Now create your GUI and on a button click write a server side method. Form this method you can communicate with API. In my case I took a console application.

  1. If you run the web project you will get your local host URL, in my case it was http://localhost:58100/
  2. Here in the authorization Header I have added my username and password in the given format username:password and encoding it to Base64 so that it provides security.
  3. If you don’t pass valid credentials from here, in the method OnAuthorization it should add Unauthorized Response.


Step 7: Create console / windows/ web application to consume the API

Here I’ve created Console application.

File: Program.cs

  • Here HTTPClient is used to consume RESTful API’s.
  • And then creating the Authorization header to pass the username and password in format (username: password).
  • client.GetAsync consumes the API and returns the Result.
  • From the result we can check the Status Code.


Angular 4 Directives – Lesson 3.3

3.2 Attribute Directives

Here directive is just a class with decorator @Directive and this allows us to specify the directive’s selector.

  • Using custom attribute directive we can change the color, back-ground, font-size etc., of the HTML host element by using ElementRef
  • Renderer class is a built-in service that provides an abstraction for UI rendering manipulations.

Let’s create a custom attribute directive “ShowAlert

Step 1: Create a folder and name it as CustomDirective: /src/app/CustomDirective

Step 2: Now create a typescript file to create your own attribute directive under the associated folder created. And then import Directive, ElementRef, HostListener, Renderer from @angular/core library.

Step 3: And provide your selector name, here I’ve named it as ShowAlert, and create a class that make this directive visible to the component i.e.,add export before the class.

File: app.myDirective.ts

Step 4: Now define contructor for FirstAttrDirective class, and define the style and events using renderer.

For setting up styles,

Renderer.setElementStyle(rendererElement:any, styleName: string, styleValue: string)


For creating events,

Renderer.listen(parentElement: any, name: string, callBack: function)

Step 5: Create your component

File: app.component.ts

Step 6: Add component and Directive in the declaration[ ] of the NgModule  i.e., AppModule

Step 7:  Create a main.ts to bootstrap the NgModule

Step 8: Create a HTML file in /src/

File: CustomDirective.html

Refer required scripts shim.min.js, zone.js, system.src.js, system.config.js and refer the main.js from CustomDirective folder

Output: Default color will be blue, on mouseover font size get increased and changes its color to red, on mouseout will change color to blue and decrease its font size.

Tadaaaa.. 🙂